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The Basics
Caterpillars are the larvae of moths and butterflies, generally they eat leaves but some species feed inside fruit such as Codling Moth and Budworms. The types that feed on leaves are the easiest to control organically.
Suggested Organic Strategies:
  • HANDY HINT: Eating a leaf with a hole in it has no impact on human health!
  • Handpick! Every caterpillar removed is one less adult laying eggs.
  • Use a butterfly net to catch adult moths, this takes a bit of practice but it can be very satisfying.
  • Sticky yellow traps are useful to trap small night-flying moths including budworms.
  • Large pieces of eggshell can be scattered amongst cabbages to confuse the Cabbage white butterfly. The theory goes that it will mistake the eggshells for other butterflies and leave the area looking for less populated plants to lay its eggs on.
  • Building the populations of natural predators is always worthwhile, so plant some Good Bug Mix!
  • Exclude caterpillars by using Vege Net!

Organic Strategies for Caterpillar Control Frances Michaels

Caterpillars generally eat leaves but some feed inside fruit such as Codling Moth and Budworms. The types that feed on leaves are easiest to control organically. Common pests in this group include Cabbage white butterfly (pictured), Cluster caterpillar, Cabbage moth, Grapevine moth, Loopers, Light brown apple moth and Lawn armyworm. The eggs of caterpillars are usually laid on the underside of leaves. Caterpillars are good at hiding themselves, so usually it is leaves chewed full of holes that you notice first. Dark green droppings on a leaf are another giveaway. Look carefully along the leaf veins and on the underside of the leaves for the culprits. Running your fingers lightly under the leaf will usually cause enough movement to allow you to spot a well-camouflaged insect. Before developing your pest management strategy, decide if you really need to do anything at all? Is it a plant you care about; is the damage sufficiently bad to warrant your intervention? For example, the beautiful Large Citrus butterfly does very little damage to citrus trees, losing a few leaves seems a small price to pay for having it in your garden. If the answer is yes, then choose from several of the suggested physical, biological and least-toxic chemical controls. Organic gardening relies on several overlapping strategies rather than the power of a single highly toxic chemical to kill the pest.

Physical and Cultural Controls
Handpicking is useful and very effective particularly if only a small number of plants are being attacked. Every caterpillar removed is one less moth laying eggs in the weeks to come. Carry a small bucket into the garden with you to collect caterpillars and other pests as a treat for your chooks.
Keeping a garden diary will help you to remember what not to plant! Any plant consistently attacked should be planted at a different time, preventative measures taken or not planted at all.
Large pieces of eggshell can be scattered amongst cabbages to confuse the Cabbage white butterfly. The theory goes that it will mistake the eggshells for other butterflies and leave the area looking for less populated plants to lay its eggs on.
A butterfly net is a surprisingly useful addition to your garden tools. It takes a bit of practice to catch Cabbage White butterflies but is an effective way to reduce numbers.
If you can prevent moths from laying their eggs in the first place then you are way ahead. You can exclude caterpillars by using a fabric designed to cover vegetables or make innovative use of mosquito netting or old window screens.

Biological Controls
Enhancing the environment for the natural predators of caterpillars is a long-term strategy with the benefits increasing over time. Attract small insect-eating birds by providing safe nest sites and a constant supply of water. Dense plantings of native shrubs, in out-of-the-way corners will provide nesting sites; prickly shrubs give added protection from predators. Nesting boxes for birds can fulfil an urgent need created by habitat destruction. Insect predators of caterpillars include: assassin bugs; tachinid flies; paper wasps, which chew up caterpillars and feed them to their larvae; lacewings and ladybirds eat moth eggs; tiny trichogramma wasps parasitise moth eggs; other tiny wasps like Apanteles sp. parasitise the caterpillar, the wasp larvae feed on non-essential parts of the caterpillar. When the wasp larvae are ready to pupate their exit generally finishes off the host caterpillar. Sounds gruesome but it is a part of nature.

Least-Toxic Chemical Controls
Choosing a least-toxic spray will reduce the impact on your good bugs! Garlic spray can be used as a repellent and to kill caterpillars. Dipel contains Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt for short; it is highly effective and selective against most species of caterpillars. This biological control is a bacterial stomach poison for all caterpillars, which is mixed with water and sprayed onto foliage. It must be ingested by the actively feeding caterpillar, which dies 3-5 days later. It is totally safe to beneficial insects, bees and mammals. Bt is broken down by sunlight within a few days; so repeated applications may be necessary.

Suggested Products:
Dipel
EcoGrub
Exclusion
Amgrow Tomato and Vegetable Dust
Pyrethrum
Pyrethrum Plus Garlic
Success Naturalyte Insect Control
Sticky Yellow Traps

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